Spread of Islam It started in the time of the Prophet and continued with four caliphs. This effort and effort has been the greatest goal of those blessed people.
Since the religion of Islam came as a mercy to people both in the world and in the hereafter, Muslims worked diligently for the spread of Islam and for everyone to benefit from these blessings and beauties.
The Spread of Islam in the Period of Our Prophet
After the death of the Prophet’s uncle and his precious wife, the oppression and persecution of our Prophet (saas) increased.
Hz. For this reason and for the spread of Islam outside of Mecca, the Prophet (saas) took his adopted son Zayd (ra) with him and set out for Taif in 620.
Hz. Our Prophet (saas) met with the notables of the people in Taif and invited them to Islam. However, the treatment he received there was not much different from that in Mecca.
While leaving for our Prophet (saas), who stayed here for ten days, the slaves of the people of Taif unfortunately threw stones and tormented him along the 2.5 km road.
Hijrah literally means to migrate from one place to another. Although the main reason for the Migration is seen as the increasing oppression and persecution of the Makkan polytheists, we can say that another point is the spread of Islam..
He migrated to Medina in 610 due to both the increasing pressure and persecution in Mecca and the inability to spread the religion of Islam in Mecca.
The battle of Badr is very important for Muslims. Because of this war, Islam became very strong. The reason for this war is the looting of the property left behind by the polytheists, who forced the Muslims to migrate.
For the polytheists, it was to eliminate Muslims and return to the old order, in other words, to prevent the spread of Islam.
This war is very important for Muslims, and with the victory of the Muslim army of about 300 against the army of the polytheists of about 1000 people, the religion of Islam, which we believe today, has come to this day.
With this great victory, he greatly strengthened the population of our Prophet (saas) in Medina.
The Qurayshi polytheists decided to fight both to avenge the Battle of Badr and to regain their lost reputation.
It was a war fought on the skirts of Uhud Mountain between the army gathered by Abu Sufyan from Mecca on March 27, 625 and the Muslims.
With this war, the Meccans aimed to gain their reputation and to stop Islam by defeating the Muslims, but they could not achieve their goals and the Meccans realized that they would not be able to destroy the Muslims.
This war, which was fought on February 23, 627, was the last war between the Meccan polytheists and the Muslims, and it was given this name because the Muslims made a defensive war by digging trenches.
This war resulted in the victory of the Muslims. After this war, in 628, what appeared as the acquisition of privileges for the Meccans and Muslims Hubeydiye Peace Treaty has been signed.
The city of Khyber, where Jews lived a lot, began to be a threat to Muslims. The Jews supported the Meccan polytheists at every opportunity and allowed them to attack the Muslims.
In addition, they insulted the religion of Islam and our Prophet (saas) and spoke humiliating words. All this formed the basis of this war.
Muslims’ first war of attack Muslims With the spread of Islam, the control and security of the Damascus trade route was ensured and the Jewish problem was solved.
Khyber was the first place the Muslims conquered, thus the Islamic State’s policy of conquest began.
The fact that they wanted to visit the Kaaba with our Prophet (saas) and his Companions and that they wanted to go to Mecca was an agreement made in 628 as a result of the polytheists’ prevention of this.
Although this agreement seems to be against the Muslims, it actually had very positive effects on the spread of Islam.
It was built in 629 in a place called Mute, between the Muslims and the Byzantines, between Syria and Jerusalem.
Hz. In order to spread Islam everywhere, our Prophet (saas) sent envoys by writing letters to all four sides, inviting every community, from tribes to states, to Islam.
One of these envoys was Haris bin Umair, who sent him to the Busra valley of the Byzantine Empire. However, the governor of Busra, Şurahbil, unfortunately had this ambassador martyred.
Hz. Our Prophet (saas) was deeply saddened by the martyrdom of Haris bin Umair and decided to fight the Byzantines. This war is a war between the Muslims and the Empire, which is a state for the first time.
In this war, both sides have withdrawn from the war and the winner or loser has not been determined.
As a result of the breach of the Hudaybiyya Agreement between the Muslims and the polytheists, Hz. Our Prophet (saas) gave the order to prepare for war.
The polytheists, who realized that they could not oppose the very strong Islamic army, could not oppose the conquest. There was no preparation in this direction either. They surrendered and began to wait for the decision of our Prophet (saas).
Hz. The Prophet destroyed the idols and then circumambulated the Kaaba with the Muslims. After the conquest, our Prophet (saas) delivered the first sermon in the Kaaba and said the following:
“My situation will be as you are, as Joseph said to his brothers. Like Yusuf, I say: No reproach or reproach to you today. God forgive you. He is the most merciful of those who show mercy. (Surah Yusuf 92) He showed great maturity against those who persecuted him for years, saying that you are all free.
Hz. When our Prophet (saas) left Medina for the conquest of Mecca, he did not tell why or where he was going.
The Havazin tribe, on the other hand, thought that this mobility would come upon them and they completed their war preparations. With the Muslims going to Mecca and conquering it easily, the tribe of Havazin realized that it would be their turn now.
At that time, the Muslims took action by saying that we should attack them before they attack us. The Battle of Hunayn was an important step in the Arabian peninsula getting rid of polytheism and the domination of oneness, and the spread of Islam continued.
Actually, this Sefer was not a revenge of the Taif Journey. It should be considered as a continuation of the Hunayn war.
The people of Taif, who had cooperated with the Havazim before the battle of Hunayn, had actually prepared for a defensive war by taking those who fled from the war, especially Khalid bin Awf, into the castle after the loss of this war.
However, in 630, they could not resist against the Muslims and surrendered.
It took place just before the farewell pilgrimage in 631, and the cause of this war was the unfounded letter written by the Christian Arabs in Syria to the Byzantine Emperor Horraclius.
In this letter, they falsely wrote that our Prophet (saas) had died, that there was famine and poverty in the Muslim geography, that they were in a difficult situation, and that many people would be able to convert to Christianity with an expedition.
Hz. The Byzantines, who saw the falsehood of what was told and saw the power of Islam, as it was the last war in which our Prophet (saas) participated, withdrew without a fight.
With the Tabuk expedition, the power of the Islamic army was understood by everyone and the spread of Islam continued rapidly.
The Period of the Four Caliphs
Working for the spread of Islam, Hz. Ebubekir (ra) sent an army under the command of Khalid bin Walid to Iraq, and then he prepared another army to seize Damascus and its surroundings, which were under Byzantine protection.
The Byzantine king Heraclius, who learned this, started to prepare for war. However, the Islamic Army won the war and with this victory, Iraq, Damascus and Syria were completely in the hands of the Muslims.
This war is also the first victory of the Muslims against the Byzantine Army.
As a result of the victories won against the Iranian armies in Nemarik and Kesker, when Iran prepared a new army and attacked, the Sassanids won the War, but had to withdraw due to their internal turmoil.
Thus, the Muslims crossed the Euphrates and advanced to the Tigris. This defeat has gone down in history as the greatest defeat in the period of the first conquests.
Hz. Umar (ra) started to have an army prepared under the command of Sa’d bin Abi in order to add the Iranian lands to the Islamic lands. The Muslims won the war. This victory not only opened the doors of Iran to Muslims, but also laid the groundwork for the victory of subsequent wars.
With the victory of the Battle of Qadisiya, the Sassanids did not start war preparations in Celula in order to resist the Muslims who were preparing for the conquest of Celula, and the Muslims who won the Battle of Celula on the one hand captured this city and Hulvan, on the other hand, they had the opportunity to seize the entire Tigris Region.
The Muslims who wanted to complete the conquest of Iran completed the war preparations and the Sassanid Empire came to an end with the Muslims winning the war.
Egypt’s economic wealth and its vulnerability to threats from Byzantium required a conquest.
With this war, Christians were compelled to pay the jizya tax. This city was prepared to be used as a camp for the conquest of North Africa. Hz. Omar was martyred by an iron master who wanted his tax to be lowered.
Sassanid Ruler III, who withdrew to Merv in eastern Iran. Not allowing Yazdcerd to recover. Khorasan was captured, so the borders were expanded up to the Ceyhun river.
Spread of Islam It continued rapidly in the time of Osman, and places such as Basra, Kufa, Damascus, Egypt and Cyprus were fully and strongly included in their Islamic lands.
Hz. In the time of Ali, there were internal turmoil with the conquerors, mostly as a result of sedition movements. The Muslims were busy with the Jamel case, the war of the siffin and the referee event among themselves.
In July 658, Hz. It is the war between the army of Ali (ra) and the Kharijites. Most of the Kharijites were killed but not completely eliminated. Afterwards, Ali(ra) was martyred by Khariji ibn Muljam. Like this The period of the 4th Caliph has come to an end.