Dear brothers and sisters. In this article, I share with you the terms and importance of the Hudaybiya Peace Treaty. Thank you for your interest in advance.
It is the agreement made between Muslims and polytheists in 628, after the events that broke out when our Prophet (saas) and his Companions wanted to go to Mecca to visit the Kaaba and this was prevented by the polytheists.
The Meccan polytheists resorted to every means to conquer Medina, kill our Prophet (saas) and destroy Islam, but they could not succeed. In the Battle of Badr, the Battle of Uhud and
They failed to achieve their goals in the Battle of the Trench. With the victories won in these wars, the number of Muslims increased, but Islam spread only in Medina. The Muslims, who were forced to migrate from Mecca, were longing for their lands. They could not visit the Kaaba, which they always turned to in their prayers and prayers, for 6 years and they were longing to visit it again.
In the 6th year of the Hijra, our Prophet (saas) saw that he was visiting the Kaaba and gave the good news to his companions that they would soon go to Mecca with the Muslims to visit the Kaaba. The joyful Muslims began their preparations at the command of our Prophet (saas). In order not to alarm the Meccans, they did not allow their companions to carry weapons, they only took a sword as a passenger weapon.
He considered it appropriate to visit the Kaaba before the pilgrimage days, in order not to encounter hostile tribes on the way to Mecca for pilgrimage. They marked the 70 sacrificial camels with them and “umrah” They entered Ihram with the intention of They sent about 20 cavalry as pioneers to ensure road safety.
When the Meccans heard that our Prophet (saas) was on his way to visit the Kaaba, they were alarmed. They decided not to let the Muslims into Mecca. They sent Khalid, son of Walid, and Ikrima, son of Abu Jahl, as pioneers with 200 cavalry.
Our Prophet learned about this decision of the Meccans through his scouts, whom he sent from the front. Turning to the right, he changed the route and advanced as far as Hudaybiye.
Meanwhile, a messenger informed that the Quraysh had made an agreement with the polytheist tribes to prevent Muslims from entering Mecca and that they were preparing for war. Our Prophet had only come to visit the Kaaba, not for war purposes. To meet with the Quraysh, Hz. He sent Osman to Mecca.
Hz. Osman met with Abu Sufyan and other notables of Quraysh. He explained that their only purpose was to visit the Kaaba. Meccans:
If we leave you all to Mecca, the Arabs will say, “The Quraysh were afraid of the Muslims.” But if you want, circumambulate the Kaaba, they said, not all at once.
Hz. Uthman refused to visit the Kaaba separately from the Muslims.
Our Prophet (saas) refused their offer, saying that I would not do it unless he circumambulated.
His behavior angered the Meccans, they put him under probation and did not allow him to return.
Hz. Osman’s delay caused rumors that he was killed among Muslims. Our Prophet (saas) took the necessary precautions against such a possibility.
He called on the Muslims to promise him that they would not hesitate to sacrifice their lives in the war they would wage in the way of Allah.
Under a tree in Hudaybiya, all the Muslims took turns holding the hands of the Prophet and paid allegiance. They promised to fight in the way of Allah until they die and not to run away from the enemy.
In the Qur’an, Allah states that He is pleased with the believers who pledged allegiance to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in Hudaybiyyah. For this reason, this allegiance in the History of Islam “Ridvan Allegiance” has been named.
This pledge, which showed the determination of Muslims and their devotion to our Prophet (saas), had a great impact on the Meccans. Immediately Hz. They released Osman and sent a delegation headed by Suhayl, son of Amr, to make peace with our Prophet (saas).
Articles of the Hudaybiyah Peace Treaty
- Muslims would be able to visit the Kaaba for a maximum of 3 days and would not have war weapons with them.
- Muslims would not visit the Kaaba in the year of the treaty and could start visiting from the next year.
- During the Muslims’ visit to the Kaaba, the Quraysh would not be in Mecca and would not interfere with the Muslims.
- Even if one of the Meccans sided with the Muslims and became a Muslim, they would be given back to the Quraysh, but if any of the Muslims took refuge in the Quraysh, they would not be given again.
- The duration of the treaty was to be valid for 10 years and there would be no war between the two sides during this period.
- Other Arab tribes will be able to come under the protection of any side they want. They would be free to unite with Muslims or polytheists.
- If Muslims go to Mecca for reasons such as hajj, trade, umrah and visit, their lives and properties will be safe.
The Importance of the Hudaybiyah Peace Treaty
- The Meccans officially accepted the political existence of the Muslims.
- The establishment of an atmosphere of peace accelerated the spread of Islam.
- The conquest of Mecca became easy.
- Although the terms of the treaty seemed to be against the Muslims, it was actually a victory.
Disruption of the Hudaybiyah Peace Treaty
Under the terms of the Hudaybiyah Agreement, other Arab tribes were free to come under the protection of either side. Accordingly, the Huzaa tribe came under the protection of Muslims, and the Banu Bekir (sons of Bekir) tribe came under the protection of the Quraysh.
In the 8th year of the Hijra, in the month of Shaban, the Banu Bakr tribe suddenly raided the Huzaa tribe, which was under the protection of our Prophet, one night. In fact, there has always been enmity between the two tribes. In this raid, Banu Bekir received help and encouragement from the Quraysh, and even some prominent Quraysh youths such as Ikrima, Safwan and Süheyl were present in the raid.
At the end of the raid, 23 people from the Huzaa tribe died, and the survivors were able to escape by taking shelter in the Harem-i Sharif. Upon this incident, the people of Huzaa came to Medina with a delegation of 40 people. They explained the situation to our Prophet (saas) and asked for his help.
Our Prophet (saas) was extremely upset. He promised to help them. He immediately sent an envoy to Quraysh:
He demanded that the people of Huzaa who were killed be paid for their diets or that the protection of the Bani Bakr Tribe be abandoned. He stated that if one of the two conditions is not accepted, the Hudaybiyah Agreement will be deemed to have been broken.
The Quraysh stated that they did not accept the first two conditions and broke the Hudaybiyya agreement. the covenant they had de facto broken before, thus officially they broke.