Hz. Events During the Caliphate of Abu Bakr (ra)
After the death of our Prophet (saas). The preservation and spread of the religion of Islam had to continue. With the election held in 632, Hz. Abu Bakr (ra) was elected caliph.
After the death of our Prophet (saas), false prophets emerged in Yemen. There were also tribes in Arabia who left their religion and rebelled.
Hz. Abu Bakr (ra) first sent the Islamic army under the command of Khalid Bin Walid to Yemen and He destroyed the false prophets who appeared.
He again subdued the tribes in Arabia who had left their religion and rebelled and did not want to give zakat. Thus, political unity was restored and He prevented the possible disintegration of the Islamic state.
In the time of our Prophet (saas), verses of the Qur’an were memorized by hafiz and written on leather, wood, flat bones and stones by revelation scribes. A committee was formed under the chairmanship of Zayd bin Sabid, due to the death of the hafizes in the wars and the difficulties in preserving the written verses. This committee collected the verses of the Qur’an written in the time of our Prophet (saas) and turned them into a book. It was ensured that the original state of the Qur’an was preserved.
In order to spread the religion, Hz. It started during the reign of Abu Bakr (ra). The country where the Islamic armies were first assigned with the conquest was Syria. The army under the command of Husamin Zeyd was sent to Syria under Byzantine rule and the tribes in this region were taken under sovereignty. The army under the command of Khalid Bin Walid was sent to Iraq under the rule of the Sassanids. As a result of the success of these armies, the Hire principality was connected to the Ottoman State and the tribes around the Euphrates river accepted Islam. With the capture of the city of Hire, the “Jizye” tax was levied for the first time. Thus, it has been proven that Islam maintained its power even after the death of our Prophet (saas).
After the Muslims captured Southern Palestine, the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius sent an army of 50,000 people to Syria. Thereupon, Khalid Bin Walid came to Syria and became the head of the Islamic armies. The two armies fought on the banks of the Yarmouk River in 634. Yarmouk Victory With this, the Muslims defeated the Byzantine army. This war is the first great victory of the Muslims against Byzantium. As a result of the Yarmouk Victory; The gates of Syria were opened to the armies of Islam.
Hz. One of the most important features of the Abu Bakr (ra) Caliphate Period; He allowed Islam to spread for the first time in Syria, Palestine and Iraq outside the Arabian peninsula. The Islam spread by our Prophet (saas) It was deeply rooted in the time of Abu Bakr (ra).
Hz. Abu Bakr (ra) fell ill after the Yarmuk Victory and gave the duty of leading the prayer to Hz. He gave it to Osman (ra). He died on August 23, 634 at the age of 63. His dear friend Hz. He was buried next to the Prophet Muhammad (saas).
Hz. Features of Abu Bakr’s (ra) Caliphate Period
– He eliminated the false prophets that emerged and prevented the possible disintegration of the Islamic state.
– By making the Qur’an a book, it was ensured that its original state was preserved.
– With the capture of the city of Hire, the “Jizye” tax was taken for the first time.
– It enabled the spread of Islam in Syria, Palestine and Iraq for the first time outside the Arabian peninsula.