Our Prophet Hz. It started in 632, the date of the death of the Prophet Muhammad (saas). The first caliph Hz. Abu Bakr (ra) followed Hz. Omar, Mr. Osman and Hz. Ali became the caliph.
In the period of 4 caliphs, in 661, Hz. It ended with the murder of Ali. In this article, we have compiled and brought together the important events that took place in this period for you.
4 Caliph Period
Hz. Abu Bakr (ra) was born in 573 in Mecca. His real name is Abdullah. His father is Abu Kuhafe, and his mother is Umm al-Hayr Selma. He is known by nicknames such as Camiu’l Kuran, Sıddık, al-Atik. Before he converted to Islam, he did not drink alcohol, did not worship idols, and was always an exemplary figure and one of the first to believe.
When he became a Muslim, he converted to Islam with his life, property and the Prophet. He served the Prophet (saas). When our Prophet (saas) migrated from Mecca to Medina in 622, he became his companion.
Hz. Abu Bakr was good-natured, compassionate and compassionate, shrewd, that is, he had a high understanding and was very generous. Hz. He became the first caliph to be elected after the death of Muhammad (saas) and served as caliph for two years. Thus, the period of the 4 caliphs began with him.
Wanting to expand the Islamic Geography, Hz. After Abu Bakr (ra) sent the army under the command of Khalid bin Walid to Iraq, he began to prepare another army to seize Damascus and its surroundings, which was under the auspices of Byzantium.
The Byzantine ruler Heraclius, who learned this, started to prepare for war. The Islamic Army won the war, and as a result of this victory, Iraq, Damascus and Syria were completely in the hands of the Muslims. This war was the first victory of the Muslims against the Byzantine Army.
Hz. Omar in 584 MekkaHe was born in He was engaged in trade. Hz. After Omar became a Muslim, he was with the Prophet (pbuh) constantly, he never left and did everything he could for the religion of Islam to the end.
He struggled with the polytheists and suffered many hardships and persecutions. Hz. He was involved in all the wars that the Prophet participated in. In the confusion that arose with the death of the Prophet, Hz. He played an important role in the election of Abu Bakr as caliph in a short time, preventing confusion and always helping him. Hz. After the death of Abu Bakr, he became the second caliph of Islam.
As a result of the victories won against the Iranian armies in Nemarik and Kesker, the war of the Sassanids was won when Iran prepared a new army and attacked, but they had to withdraw due to business confusion. Thus, the Muslims crossed the Euphrates and advanced to the Tigris. This defeat has gone down in history as the greatest defeat in the period of the first conquests.
Hz. Umar (ra) started to prepare an army under the command of Sa’d bin Abi in order to add Iran to the Islamic lands. Muslims won the war. This victory not only opened the doors of Iran to Muslims, but also laid the groundwork for the victory of subsequent wars.
With the victory of the Battle of Qadisiya, the Muslims who won the Battle of Celula in the war, which was made after the Sassanids started the war preparations in Celula in order to resist the Muslims who were preparing for the conquest of Celula, on the one hand captured this city and Hulvan, on the other hand, they had the opportunity to seize the entire Tigris Region.
When the Muslims who wanted to complete the conquest of Iran started to prepare for war, the Muslims won the war and the Sassanid Empire was ended.
The economic wealth of Egypt and its vulnerability to the dangers from Byzantium required conquest. Christians were compelled to pay the jizya tax. This city was prepared to be used as a camp for the conquest of North Africa and Egypt was partially conquered.
Sassanid Ruler III, who withdrew to Merv in eastern Iran. Not allowing Yazdcerd to recover. Khorasan was captured, so the borders were expanded up to the Ceyhun river.
Hz. Ömer was martyred by an iron master who wanted his tax to be lowered.
Hz. Osman (ra) was born in 574 in Mecca. His mother, Ervâ bint-i Küreyz, is the daughter of my Prophet’s (pbuh) aunt Beyza. Hz. When Osman became a believer, he endured many troubles and ordeals and migrated twice to Abyssinia and then to Medina. Hz. Osman was involved in all wars except Badr.
Hz. Osman first married the Prophet’s daughter Rukiye (ra) and after she passed away, his other daughter Umm Kulthum (ra), so he married her. “Two Lights” It was given the nickname Zinnûreyn. Hz. Osman was a very rich merchant, a perfect and elegant man. He is the first person that comes to mind when chastity and modesty are mentioned.
Hz. After Osman was elected caliph in 644, he conquered Armenia, Khorasan, North Africa, Cyprus, Tripoli and Tabaristan and suppressed the uprisings in Iran.
Cyprus was connected to the Islamic State in 650 and won the Zâtü’s-Sevârî Sea War against Byzantium. Hz. Osman’s caliphate lasted for twelve years.
One of the important services he performed during his caliphate was Hz. gathered during the time of Abu Bakr Mushaf The Qur’an, which was made into a form, was re-checked, reproduced and distributed to various places. Hz. Unfortunately, Osman was martyred by the rebels in Medina in 656 and his body was buried in Cennet-ül Baki Cemetery.
Hz. Ali was born inside the Kaaba in 600. The son of the uncle of the Prophet (saas) is both his son-in-law and his fourth caliph. His father is Abu Talib, his mother is Fatima bint-i Esed and his grandfather is Abdulmuttalip. Hz. Ali (ra) was honored with Islam when he was ten years old, and in the ‘Brotherhood Agreement’ made in Medina, our Prophet (saas) was the Prophet. He chose Ali (ra) as his brother.
Hz. Ali, the daughter of the Prophet in 624, Hz. He married Fatima and they had children named Hasan, Hüseyin, Muhassin, Zeynep and Ümmü Gülsüm from this marriage. He was always with the Prophet and participated in all wars.
Hz. During the time of Umar (ra), he took care of all the legal affairs of the state and almost acted as the honorary chief judge of the Islamic State. Hz. After the martyrdom of Ömer, he took part in the council committee of six people, who was tasked with electing the new head of state.
He was one of the last two candidates out of these six. Hz. After the martyrdom of Osman, the caliphate Hz. He was offered this offer to Ali. Talha and Hz. Zubayr (ra) accepted after much insistence.
It occurred in 656. Hz. Aisha, Mr. In finding the murderers of Osman (ra), Hz. He thought that Ali (ra) was acting slowly. Hz. Talha and Hz. With the support of Zübeyir, Hz. They declared that they did not recognize Ali (ra)’s caliphate and gathered an army. Hz. Ali (ra) and Hz. Ayşe and her supporters Hz. Talha and Hz. It happened between Zubayr. There were minor clashes.
Hz. The differences of opinion between Ali (ra) and Muawiya, the governor of Damascus. Hz. Ali (ra) said, “A person’s right cannot be sacrificed for anything.” While defending the idea that Osman (ra)’s real killers should be found and punished, Muawiya defended the idea of killing the entire rebel group, saying, “The law of the servant is sacrificed for the welfare of the nation.” This difference of opinion was the reason for the start of the war.
In the battle of Siffin, Hz. While Ali(ra)’s army was about to win the war, Muawiya’s army resorted to deception. By hanging the Qur’an leaves on the ends of the spears, so that no more brother blood will flow in this war, let the Qur’an act as an arbitrator for us and let’s solve the problem like this. They caused strife in Ali (ra)’s army. Hz. Even though Ali (ra) ordered his army to fight, he could not pass his word and the referee incident took place. After this event, Mr. Muawiya became the caliph.
In July 658, Hz. It is the war between the army of Ali (ra) and the Kharijites. Most of the Kharijites were killed but not completely eliminated. Afterwards, He was martyred by Ali(ra) Kharijib ibn Muljam. like this The period of the 4th Caliph has come to an end.